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Country information - Afghanistan
Country name - conventional long form : Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Country name - conventional short form : Afghanistan
Country name - local long form : Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afghanestan
Country name - local short form : Afghanestan
Country name - former : Republic of Afghanistan
Government type : Islamic republic
Capital - name : Kabul
Capital - time difference : UTC+4.5 (9.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
National holiday : Independence Day, 19 August (1919)
Population : 32,738,376 (July 2008 est.)
Nationality - noun : Afghan(s)
Nationality - adjective : Afghan
Languages : Afghan Persian or Dari (official) 50%, Pashto (official) 35%, Turkic languages (primarily Uzbek and Turkmen) 11%, 30 minor languages (primarily Balochi and Pashai) 4%, much bilingualism
Currency (code) : afghani (AFA)
Currency code : AFA
Major infectious diseases - degree of risk : high
Major infectious diseases - note : highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

Afghanistan is located Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran. The climate is arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers. The terrain is mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest.


This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Background : Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. The country served as a buffer between the British and Russian empires until it won independence from notional British control in 1919. A brief experiment in democracy ended in a 1973 coup and a 1978 Communist counter-coup. The Soviet Union invaded in 1979 to support the tottering Afghan Communist regime, touching off a long and destructive war. The USSR withdrew in 1989 under relentless pressure by internationally supported anti-Communist mujahedin rebels. A series of subsequent civil wars saw Kabul finally fall in 1996 to the Taliban, a hardline Pakistani-sponsored movement that emerged in 1994 to end the country's civil war and anarchy. Following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in New York City, a US, Allied, and anti-Taliban Northern Alliance military action toppled the Taliban for sheltering Osama BIN LADIN. The UN-sponsored Bonn Conference in 2001 established a process for political reconstruction that included the adoption of a new constitution, a presidential election in 2004, and National Assembly elections in 2005. In December 2004, Hamid KARZAI became the first democratically elected president of Afghanistan and the National Assembly was inaugurated the following December. Despite gains toward building a stable central government, a resurgent Taliban and continuing provincial instability - particularly in the south and the east - remain serious challenges for the Afghan Government.

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