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Country information - Chad
Country name - conventional long form : Republic of Chad
Country name - conventional short form : Chad
Country name - local long form : Republique du Tchad/Jumhuriyat Tshad
Country name - local short form : Tchad/Tshad
Government type : republic
Capital - name : N'Djamena
Capital - time difference : UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
National holiday : Independence Day, 11 August (1960)
Population : 10,111,337 (July 2008 est.)
Nationality - noun : Chadian(s)
Nationality - adjective : Chadian
Languages : French (official), Arabic (official), Sara (in south), more than 120 different languages and dialects
Currency (code) : Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XAF); note - responsible authority is the Bank of the Central African States
Currency code : XAF
Major infectious diseases - degree of risk : very high

Chad is located Central Africa, south of Libya. The climate is tropical in south, desert in north. The terrain is broad, arid plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south.


This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Background : Chad, part of France's African holdings until 1960, endured three decades of civil warfare as well as invasions by Libya before a semblance of peace was finally restored in 1990. The government eventually drafted a democratic constitution, and held flawed presidential elections in 1996 and 2001. In 1998, a rebellion broke out in northern Chad, which has sporadically flared up despite several peace agreements between the government and the rebels. In 2005, new rebel groups emerged in western Sudan and made probing attacks into eastern Chad, despite signing peace agreements in December 2006 and October 2007. Power remains in the hands of an ethnic minority. In June 2005, President Idriss DEBY held a referendum successfully removing constitutional term limits and won another controversial election in 2006. Sporadic rebel campaigns continued throughout 2006 and 2007, and the capital experienced a significant rebel threat in early 2008.

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