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Georgia

Geography - People - Economy - Government - Communications - Transportation - Military - Transnational Issues

Country information - Georgia
Country name - conventional long form : none
Country name - conventional short form : Georgia
Country name - local long form : none
Country name - local short form : Sak'art'velo
Country name - former : Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type : republic
Capital - name : T'bilisi
Capital - time difference : UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
National holiday : Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Population : 4,630,841 (July 2008 est.)
Nationality - noun : Georgian(s)
Nationality - adjective : Georgian
Currency (code) : lari (GEL)
Currency code : GEL

Georgia is located Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia. The climate is warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast. The terrain is largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland.

Background

This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Background : The region of present-day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D. and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. An attempt by the incumbent Georgian government to manipulate national legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. New elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his National Movement party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the breakaway regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Georgian military action in South Ossetia in early August 2008 led to a Russian military response that not only occupied the breakaway areas, but large portions of Georgia proper as well. Russian troops pulled back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. This action was strongly condemned by most of the world's nations and international organizations.



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