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Geography - People - Economy - Government - Communications - Transportation - Military - Transnational Issues

Country information - India
Country name - conventional long form : Republic of India
Country name - conventional short form : India
Country name - local long form : Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
Country name - local short form : India/Bharat
Government type : federal republic
Capital - name : New Delhi
Capital - time difference : UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
National holiday : Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Population : 1,147,995,904 (July 2008 est.)
Nationality - noun : Indian(s)
Nationality - adjective : Indian
Currency (code) : Indian rupee (INR)
Currency code : INR
Major infectious diseases - degree of risk : high
Major infectious diseases - note : highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)

India is located Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan. The climate is varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north. The terrain is upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north.


This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Background : Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated onto the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkic in the 12th were followed by those of European traders, beginning in the late 15th century. By the 19th century, Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons testing in 1998 caused Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. The dispute between the countries over the state of Kashmir is ongoing, but discussions and confidence-building measures have led to decreased tensions since 2002. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output, India faces pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and ethnic and religious strife.

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