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Country information - Mongolia
Country name - conventional long form : none
Country name - conventional short form : Mongolia
Country name - local long form : none
Country name - local short form : Mongol Uls
Country name - former : Outer Mongolia
Government type : mixed parliamentary/presidential
Capital - name : Ulaanbaatar
Capital - time difference : UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
National holiday : Independence Day/Revolution Day, 11 July (1921)
Population : 2,996,081 (July 2008 est.)
Nationality - noun : Mongolian(s)
Nationality - adjective : Mongolian
Languages : Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Currency (code) : togrog/tugrik (MNT)
Currency code : MNT

Mongolia is located Northern Asia, between China and Russia. The climate is desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges). The terrain is vast semidesert and desert plains, grassy steppe, mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in south-central.


This entry usually highlights major historic events and current issues and may include a statement about one or two key future trends.
Background : The Mongols gained fame in the 13th century when under Chinggis KHAN they conquered a huge Eurasian empire. After his death the empire was divided into several powerful Mongol states, but these broke apart in the 14th century. The Mongols eventually retired to their original steppe homelands and in the late 17th century came under Chinese rule. Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A Communist regime was installed in 1924. Following a peaceful democratic revolution, the ex-Communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) won elections in 1990 and 1992, but was defeated by the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) in the 1996 parliamentary election. Since then, parliamentary elections returned the MPRP overwhelmingly to power in 2000, but 2004 elections reduced MPRP representation and, therefore, its authority.

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